The Three Fundamental Principles of Film Scoring

Photo by Jeremy Brooks

Writing original music for film can be a complex and nuanced endeavor, with hundreds of different unique topics to study and develop. However the most important elements can be simplified down to a few basic principles.

Three of those important fundamental principles are how the music feels, how the music fits to picture, and how a single cue relates to the overall score.

These are the most critical elements to focus on. Let’s look at them in more detail, and in what I believe to be order of importance.

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Use Opposites to Stay Interesting

Photo by Dean Hochman.

I’ve written about this in the past, but the topic is so central to creating compelling work that I will never stop coming back to it.

So much music out there is BORING. And it’s boring because it’s average. Middle of the road. Medium. Lukewarm. Safe.

A simple tip to avoid falling to in the trap of neutral gray? Opposites!

Here are just a few examples of opposites that a composer can take advantage of:

Major vs. Minor
Quiet vs. Loud
Fast vs. Slow
Legato vs. Staccato
Simple vs. Complex
Thin vs. Thick
Strings vs. Winds (or Brass vs. Percussion, Piano vs. Bass, etc.)
Ambience vs. Rhythm
Steady vs. Syncopated
Single line vs. Harmony

How can exploring one of these areas help you make your work more interesting? What if you took a straightforward 8 bar phrase and split it in half, the first four bars played very loudly, and the second four played very slowly? The late Baroque and early Classical composers took advantage of these exact kinds of simple opposites, taking straightforward harmonies and melodies but making them exciting through extremes of mode, dynamics, and other treatments.

The more extreme your opposites are from each other, the more exciting and dramatic the result will be.

As they say, you can’t have quiet without having loud.

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Film Scoring 101: Version Numbers

A simple tip I picked up back at Remote Control was the importance of labelling your files with good version numbers. By using a simple system for labelling project sessions and mixes, you avoid all kinds of confusion and wasted time.

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“Getting the Score – Pacing in American Beauty”

Master composer and teacher Alain Mayrand has written a great post about his study of Thomas Newman’s score to American Beauty. He gains insights on pacing, timing, music vs. silence, and length of cues. The whole article is worth a read, and after reading I had a few additional thoughts of my own.

  • Studying scores with a specific purpose in mind is the best way to do it. If you just think to yourself “I’m going to check out the score to American Beauty” you will probably lose focus and get caught up in the film, and try to absorb so many aspects of the music at once that you’ll miss important insights.
    Better instead to choose a single purpose of study, in this case the amount of music vs. space and the length of cues. This study was more about time and pacing than about themes, harmony, orchestration etc. All valuable things to study, but if you can get yourself to focus on a single point you will end up gaining far more value.
  • “Very short cues, as short as 23 seconds, are fine and feel complete natural – as long as they follow the narrative.”
    I used to think that very short cues were to be avoided at all costs, because you ran the risk of making the score sound less like a film and more like a TV show. I can even remember telling this to directors on some of the first features I scored. But now looking back, I think I was just parroting something I had heard in school or from another composer. If it makes sense for the story, then it doesn’t really matter how long or short the cue is.
  • There is a certain risk in comparing what works for one score with what will work for another. It’s kind of like counting the bars in one specific movement of one specific symphony. “Well if the second movement of Beethoven’s 3rd has 185 measures, then my piece needs to be 185 measures!”
    The best remedy is to study a wide range of scores in a variety of genres. Then you will begin to gain a sense for universal approaches and don’t run the risk of focusing too much on what could turn out to be an outlier. “Castaway” famously has no score for the first 30 minutes of the film, but it doesn’t mean that always works!

Be sure to read Alain’s original post and check out the other articles on his great site!

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Compose Postcards, Not Novels

Photo by Nick Kenrick

A problem young composers often have with their work is that they try to say too many things at once. I don’t think this is to show off or try to brag about how much theory they know, but more of a fear that if they aren’t saying “a lot”, they aren’t saying “enough”.

A metaphor I like to think of is the postcard vs. the novel. A postcard is a single image and a few lines of text that convey the bare minimum of communication. Usually something like “wish you were here” or “get well soon”. It doesn’t go beyond a single emotional state and only exists for a moment. A novel, on the other hand, is long and dynamic. The story has ups and downs, characters come in and out, entire settings change frequently, and it takes many hours to read.

I believe that a piece of music should be approached more like a postcard than a novel. Your music should live in the moment it is trying to express, rather than try to squash an entire lifetime of emotions into a few minutes. When you focus your attention on a single moment, your music will breathe and you will actually be able to express yourself more freely.

Let’s say you are trying to write a two to three minute instrumental “epic fantasy battle” cue. A common approach would be to try to tell an entire story. Soldiers arrive at the field, tension builds, the battle begins, the hero emerges, the enemy is defeated, the battle is over, the fallen are remembered. It might sound like a joke but this is often how many twists and turns people try to cram into a single piece. Not only is it difficult to listen to, it’s difficult to write!

Instead think about approaching each of those moments as a single piece. “Soldiers arrive at the field” could easily make for a compelling two minute cue. “The Hero Emerges” must surely bring some ideas to mind for themes or orchestration. To think of it in another way: a cue is a scene, not a movie. (I realize how obvious this sounds, but you wouldn’t know it from how schizophrenic some of the music I hear is!)

One of the best pieces of advice I ever got about library music was “if the editor wants the music to change, they’ll change to different music.” He meant that a library cue should represent a single mood, rather than trying to express an exciting and dynamic composition. So don’t “start tense and build into triumphant”. That’s too specific and could only ever be used for a scene that happened to start tense and end triumphant in the exact same way. In other words, it would be mostly useless! Instead you write two different cues, one that’s tense and one that’s triumphant. The editor decides which to use and when.

Library music is commercial and arguably not “artistic”, but I believe the same principle applies to non-commercial music as well. The only apparent exception is extended forms, ie. longer pieces of music. But in most of those cases you’ll find that each section is expressing a single mood before transitioning to the next section. A six minute piece by Chopin might have two minutes of sweet, three minutes of brooding, and back to a minute of sweet again. So really there are only two moods, and each one can be absorbed in a postcard’s worth of expression.

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Irish film “Battle” from director Megan K. Fox

Battle posterLast month I scored the lovely short film “Battle”. The film was shot in Dublin and directed by Megan K. Fox, with a premiere screening at the Prince Charles Theater in Leicester Square.

The film stars Irish actress Kelly Thornton and is “an uplifting short film about finding strength through music that aims to fight some of the stigmas surrounding mental illness. Our story follows a brave young woman called Molly as she prepares herself to perform on stage at her school Battle of the Bands. Through her performance she will face her demons and prove to herself that she is strong enough to pursue happiness in the face of her ongoing battle with depression.”

The score was very minimalist (Megan had me strip down my already naturally sparse style to even less!) and focused on the isolation and “stuck” feelings of depression.

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Two Films Screening at Asians On Film Festival

At this year’s Asians on Film Festival in Los Angeles I will have two films screening on the same night!

The first is Descendants of the Past, Ancestors of the Future, directed by Albert Chan who will be in attendance with Golden Globe nominee actress Tina Chen.

The short film Carry On, directed by Yatao Li, will also be screening. Yatao licensed a piece of my music to use as the underscore for the film. In a strange twist of coincidence, the piece that they used in Carry On is from the score to The Commitment, my first film with director Albert Chan!

Both films will be part of the short series on Friday March 27th at 9:30pm. I’ll be attending, and tickets are available here.

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Use the Copying Technique to Study Composition

If you have ever spent some time in an art museum, you may have noticed an art student with a sketchpad and pencil drawing a work of art. Sometimes they are sketching the main outlines, sometimes they are going into every little detail, but either way what they are doing is copying. By actually putting a masterpiece down in their own hand, an artist can feel and think about the work more intimately than simply by looking at it alone.

I propose that composition students take the same approach when learning how to write music. By literally copying a piece of music you can learn far more about what makes it work than by simply listening. Depending on the style this might mean literally writing out the notation, or it might mean trying to duplicate the music exactly in your DAW.

This can’t be a passive task, however. Mindlessly copying out notation while you watch TV is about as useful as using a photocopier. I’ve made this mistake before, thinking that if I simply copied out twenty pages of Debussy I’d somehow absorb everything and become a brilliant orchestrator. But I was merely drawing notes, not paying mindful attention to the music, and so I wasted my time.

You need to actually pay attention to the work, to think about each note. You need to question it’s existence. Why did the composer use that motive there? Why the decision to change to that harmony? Why two half notes instead of a whole note? And so on.

I read about a composer who used this method in an even more challenging and brilliant way. I believe it was Ernst Toch, author of The Shaping Forces in Music. He would copy out by hand the entire exposition of the first movement from a Mozart string quartet. Then when he reached the development he would stop looking at the Mozart and instead write his own development section.

Afterwards he’d go back and compare his development to Mozart’s. Every single time he was blown away by how Mozart had handled the same material, but more importantly he really understood WHY and HOW Mozart had done it. He had lived intimately with the themes and motives of the exposition. He knew them in his bones, and so he had a better insight into Mozart’s decisions than practically anyone else who was merely listening.

It’s hard work. Really hard work, especially when you are first starting out and the approach is new and difficult. But if you want to reach elite status, hard work is what it’s going to take.

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On Being Fully Committed With Your Music

Photo by Ed Schipul

Occasionally I teach private lessons in composition, which it turns out is one of the best ways to learn and improve on my own writing. Explaining a particular concept or technique helps bring it back to my attention and solidify the idea in my mind.

Among the many problems that my students have with their work (including low production value, rambling, using too many ideas at once, etc.), perhaps the most significant is a lack of commitment to their ideas.

By this I mean that their “loud” and “quiet” moments are both just kind of medium. Their chord “progressions” are static and don’t go anywhere. Their “fast and driving” tempo is more like a walking pace.

There is a lack of commitment to what they are trying to say, or at least what they think they are saying. Whatever it is they are attempting to express, they just don’t seem to be getting there.

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2014 – The Year in Review

(image by Artis Rams)

As 2014 comes to an end, I’d like to look back on some highlights of my work over the past year.

– My music was featured in the beautiful short film “Carry On” by Yatao Li. The film has taken the festival circuit by storm and is on the list of only 10 films eligible for the Academy Award for Best Short Film!

– Feature film “Fire City: The Interpreter of Signs”, directed by Academy Award winning creature designer Tom Woodruff Jr. and written/produced by Brian Lubocki and Michael Hayes.

“The Emissary” by Rudy Dobrev, starring Emmy winning actress Margo Martindale, co-starring Law & Order: SVU’s Diane Neal, and edited by Richard Marizy, editor of the Academy Award and Golden Globe winning film La Vie en Rose.

– My second film with writer/director Albert Chan was completed. “Descendants of the Past, Ancestors of the Future” stars Chan and Golden Globe and Emmy nominee Tina Chen. The music was recognized with an Honorable Mention for Best Score at the Asians on Film Festival.

– Several new projects with writer/director Ben Shelton and SoulPancake including:

– Trailer for “The Dancing Pumpkin and the Ogre’s Plot”, an awesome feature animated film I scored last year.

– A ton of new library music, including new tracks specifically for the upcoming third season of “King of the Nerds” and the brand new show “Wake Up Call” starring Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson.

– An album of orchestral Fantasy Adventure music.

– Many  miscellaneous projects, including string arrangements and recordings with my company Short Order Strings, additional music for an android game, and over twenty new projects with pharmaceutical animation company Viscira.

– 10 Tutorials/Articles for Audiotuts:

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